Linux console

Change multiple files extension

rename 's/\.css$/\.scss/' *.css

Backup(restore) directory

# backup
tar -cpzf test-`date +%Y-%m-%d`.tar.gz /home/mac/test
# restore
tar -xpzf /home/mac/test-2012-04-25.tar.gz -C /

Backup(restore) mysql

# backup
mysqldump --databases -u [LOGIN] --password=[PASSOWRD] [DATABASE] > /home/mac/db-`date +%Y-%m-%d`.sql
# restore
mysql -u [LOGIN] --password=[PASSWORD] [DATABASE] < /home/mac/db-2012-04-25.sql

If there is errors about importing big file, set set global max_allowed_packet=128*1024*1024;

ln -s [existing_file] [link]
ln -s /var/www /home/mac/www

Search for text in files

grep -H -r "TODO" | cut -d: -f1

Sync with production server

rsync -avz -e ssh [USERNAME]@[HOST]:/var/www/ ./
mysqldump --add-drop-database --databases -h [HOST] -u [USERNAME] --password=[PASSWORD] [DATABASE] > [FILE_NAME].sql
mysql -u root --password=[PASSWORD] < [FILE_NAME].sql

First command will sync files, two next - database

Remove line from multiple files

find . -name "*.md" -exec sed -i 's/^permalink.*$//' {} \;

Replace line in a file

sed -i 's/search_me/replacement/' test.txt

Ubuntu version

cat /etc/issue

Upgrade ubuntu

apt-get install update-manager-core

Ubuntu locales

apt-get install language-pack-ru
update-locale LC_ALL=ru_UA.UTF-8 LANG=ru_UA.UTF-8

Notice that I used ru_UA for Ukrainian instead of ru_RU To get effect logout from system and login back

To regenerate locale use sudo locale-gen en_US.UTF-8

Allow user use sudo (add him to sudo group)

#usermod -aG <groupname> <username>
usermod -aG sudo <username>

Automatically login

Replace last line in /etc/init/tty1.conf from exec /sbin/getty -8 38400 tty1 to exec /bin/login -f USERNAME < /dev/tty1 > /dev/tty1 2>&1

Show available network cards

ifconfig | grep "^[a-z]" | cut -d":" -f 1

SSH authorize with keys

On your laptop run:


Answer with default values to all questions. Then run:

ssh-copy-id user@server

Change user and server to apropriate values. This will allow you to connect to remote machine without entering password.

On Windows, run puttygen.exe, generate SSH-2 RSA with 1024 bits and save generated keys (private.ppk and Code to copy into authorized_keys will be at top of puttygen window.

Now in putty under Connection\SSH\Auth select generated private key, and copy your public key to servers ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

To make it more easier, create file ~/.ssh/config with config like this:

Host example
	User example

Now instead:


You can use:

ssh example

For Putty, navigate to Connection \ SSH \ Auth and select your generated file in Private key file for authentication


To start new session use: screen [-S my] To reconnect to session use: screen -r [my] To list available sessions use: screen -ls Connect second user to screen: screen -x [my]


Local to remote

scp path/myfile user@

Remote to local

scp user@ /path/to/put/here

Notice semicolon before path to remote file. Under windows you can use pscp.exe wich comes with putty.


dpkg --get-selections # show installed packages
sudo dpkg -i app.dep # install package
sudo dpkg -r app # uninstall package, run sudo apt-get autoremove after

change default editor

sudo update-alternatives --config editor

get top 404 urls from access.log

cat access.log | awk '{ if($9 == 404) { print $7 } }' | sort | uniq -c | sort -r | head -10

grep ' 404 ' access.log | cut -d ' ' -f 7 |sort |uniq -c |sort -n

who tried root access via ssh

cat auth.log grep “Failed password for root from” cut -d ‘ ‘ -f 11 sort uniq -c sort -n

prepend file

sed -i -e '1i TEXT' FILE

will add string “TEXT” to FILE

memory usage per process

ps axo user,pid,%mem,rss,cmd –sort -rss head

Same but cut long commands

ps axo user,pid,%mem,rss,cmd –sort -rss | head | cut -c1-$(stty size </dev/tty | cut -d’ ‘ -f2)

Multiline echo into file

sudo cat >> /etc/supervisor/supervisord.conf << EOL
files = conf.d/*.conf

Use cat >> to append to file and cat > to overwrite whole file

Another way for permission denied files:

cat << EOF | sudo tee -a /etc/supervisor/supervisord.conf
files = conf.d/*.conf

Use tee -a to append to file and tee to overwrite whole file

Sudo without password

sudo visudo

add to end of the file:



echo administrator ALL=NOPASSWD: ALL | sudo tee /etc/sudoers.d/administrator

sed remove comments

multiline commment blocks

sed '/\/\*/,/\*\//d inputFile

single line comments

sed 's/#.*$//g' FileName